Common Toxidromes*

Cardiac Signs
Tachycardia and/or Hypertension Bradycardia and/or Hypotension Cardiac Conduction Delays (Wide QRS)
Amphetamines Beta blockers Cocaine
Anticholinergic drugs Calcium channel blockers Cyclic antidepressants
Antihistamines Clonidine Local anesthetics
Cocaine Digoxin and related glycosides Propoxyphene
Theophylline/caffeine Organophosphates and carbamates Antiarrhythmics (e.g., quinidine, flecainide)
Withdrawal states
CNS/Metabolic Signs
Seizures CNS and/or Respiratory Depression Metabolic Acidosis
Cyclic antidepressants Antidepressants (several classes) Cyanide
Isoniazid Benzodiazepines Ethylene glycol
Selective and non-selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (eg, bupropion) Carbon monoxide Metformin
Withdrawal states Ethanol Methanol
Methanol Salicylates
Opioids
Oral hypoglycemics
  • * Differential diagnosis lists are partial.